The root of our emotions are embedded in the body
Have a think about this scenario: It’s dark. You hear a noise, you begin to feel scared, and your heart starts pounding. And now think about this one: It’s dark. You hear a noise, your heart starts pounding and you begin to feel scared. Which is true?
In reality, both are true. Your brain and body are constantly talking to each other with each other. The physiological state of the body which is encoded in the heart, among other body organs, is relayed to the brain constantly, on every single heartbeat.
doppel creates a rhythmic pulse that you feel on the inside of your wrist as a silent, heartbeat-like vibration.
The design of doppel was inspired by several research strands that show how humans respond intuitively to different rhythms.
For example, the tempo of a song can naturally alter our breathing rate and heart rate - and in fact, researchers in Sweden found that not only can choir singers harmonise their voices, they can also synchronise their heartbeats. The team monitored the heart rates of singers and found that as the members sang in unison, their pulses began to speed up and slow down at the same rate.
Beyond music, several studies highlight entrainment effects in responses to biological rhythms, and the heartbeat is perhaps the most ubiquitous biological rhythm in nature. For example, the heartbeats of a mother and baby will synchronise with one another when they interact closely, and similar effects have been observed in couples.
Research shows that slower tempos result in lower arousal and positive or calm emotional states, while we associate fast rhythms with arousing emotional states such as joy, excitement, surprise, fear or anger.
By affecting your brain's perception of your heart rate, doppel changes how you feel. doppel uses the most natural rhythm that exists, the one we all experience first as embryos, and it does this silently, and subtly. We do not simply perceive this rhythm, but we entrain to it - a faster rhythm makes us more alert, and a slower one calms us down.
Our independent testing
doppel's award-winning technology has been scientifically tested and has been independently shown both to reduce stress and improve focus.
Researchers from the Psychology Department at Royal Holloway, University of London assessed the calming effects of doppel and found that its heartbeat-like vibration delivered onto the inside of the wrist can make the wearer feel significantly less stressed.
The research was published on 24 May 2017 in the the peer-reviewed Journal Scientific Reports.
The article Azevedo RT, Bennett N, Bilicki A, Hooper J, Markopoulou F & Tsakiris M (2017) The calming effect of a new wearable device during the anticipation of public speech. Scientific Reports, DOI : 10.1038/s41598-017-02274-2 is freely available online at www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-02274-2.
To test the efficacy of doppel, the researchers exposed volunteers to a socially stressful situation and measured their physiological arousal and their reported anxiety levels.
In a controlled, single-blind study, two groups of participants were asked to prepare a public speech - a widely used psychological task that consistently increases stress. All participants wore the device on their wrist and a cover story was used to suggest to participants that the device was measuring blood pressure during the anticipation of the task. Importantly, for only one of the two groups of participants, the device was turned on and delivered a heartbeat-like vibration at a slower frequency than the participants’ resting heart rate, while they were preparing their speech.
The researchers measured both physiological arousal and subjective reports of anxiety. The use of doppel had a tangible and measurable calming effect across both physiological and psychological levels. Only the participants who felt the heartbeat-like vibration displayed lower increases in skin conductance responses and lower anxiety levels.
In a psychology lab Dr Tsakiris led an experiment where participants completed a controlled Psychomotor Vigilance Task (a sustained-attention, reaction-timed task that measures the speed with which subjects respond to a visual stimulus). Those wearing doppel set at 100-120bpm committed fewer lapses than the control scenario (wearing doppel switched off), irrespective of whether they performed the test with doppel or the control first. This shows that participants who felt the heartbeat-like vibration were more alert and focused.
Dr Tsakiris published his findings in this White Paper.
doppel has also been trialled by hundreds of people who have used it to focus at work, to stay calm in stressful situations, to set a pace while exercising, and much more.
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